Document Type

Capstone Project

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)


Social, Behavioral & Global Studies


The US Military generated a series of responses to racial conflicts that occurred in the early 1970s, including the uprisings aboard the Navy ships Kitty Hawk and Constellation. These responses constituted a counter-insurgent code, where the legitimacy of African American servicemen involved in uprisings was questioned. The social and behavioral sciences were also used by the military to universalize the claims made in these counter-insurgent documents to the entirety of the African American community. This paper studies how manhood was used in bother counter-insurgent prose and scientific studies to deny the agency of African American servicemen engaged in struggles against racism. The essay also reveals how oppositional manhood was used by sailors to negate dominant claims to social constructions of manhood and encourage further resistance to racism in the military.


Capstone Project (B.A.) Social and Behavioral Sciences Institute