Spring 2016

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Teacher Education


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of indirect written and verbal feedback on the written work of three 5th grade English Language Learners (ELLs). Providing such a narrowed scope of study would enable the exploration of a new strategy aimed at teaching ELLs to clarify their writing. Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across three participants, the study measured the number of pronouns used by each participant that did not establish a common or proper noun in connection to pronouns used in each sentence during baseline and intervention. A one month intervention consisted of indirect written and verbal feedback from researcher to the students about their written pronoun use. Results indicated improvement in the clarity of all participants’ writing as they changed their individual approach to defining what a clear subject was in their sentences. Thus, a functional relationship between the indirect feedback and pronoun use was noted.