Spring 2017

Document Type

Master's Thesis (Open Access)

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Teacher Education


Listening comprehension is the centerpiece of learning a language and it is also the most difficult modality for student success. This study investigated two processes: top-down and bottom-up processing in second language learning, as well as how metacognitive strategy regulates the learning process. Four participants were selected with varying degrees of second language listening ability; two good listeners and two weak listeners. Qualitative research methods including three data sources: interviews, students’ listening notes and teacher observations were triangulated to explore how learners progressed with language listening strategy instruction. Based on the findings, all participants have gained from the listening strategies instructions. Although the weak listeners in this study showed no improvement in their scores, they all, especially these weak listeners, gained the strategy of listening, as evidenced by the increasing awareness of their own listening process, forming a better listening habit and gaining confidence in listening. The results also showed that learners at different learning stages use top-down and bottom-up processing differently.