Spring 2017

Document Type

Master's Thesis (Open Access)

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Teacher Education


Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention and have difficulty remaining seated. The use of a therapy ball as a seating option may allow students with ADHD to receive the movement they seek during classroom activities when staying seated is desired. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of therapy balls increased in-seat behavior for 2nd-3rd grade Special Day Class students with an ADHD diagnosis during a 30-minute math activity. The participants were two second graders and one third grader with an ADHD diagnosis. The three participants were chosen because they each exhibited out-of-seat behavior consistently throughout the day (i.e., standing up, wandering the classroom, laying on desk, and going under the desk). This study used a single-case A-B-A-B interrupted time design. The results from this study indicate that therapy balls are an intervention that may increase in-seat behavior for students with ADHD. Therapy balls are a practical intervention that can be an effective way to increase in-seat behavior for students with ADHD.