Spring 2018

Document Type

Master's Thesis (Open Access)

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Teacher Education


Students with learning disabilities (LDs) often struggle to learn and maintain multiplication automaticity. This research looked at using the computer-based instruction (CBI) program, XtraMath, as an intervention to increase multiplication automaticity for students with LDs. Five fifth-grade students who have math goals stated in their Individual Education Plans (IEPs) were participants in this study. A multiple-baseline-across-participants single-case AB design was conducted to determine the impact XtraMath had on automaticity of multiplication facts (0-9) shown by digits correct per minute (DC/M). Each participant entered the intervention phase (i.e., phase B) separately and provided hard data by completing a two-minute, pencil and paper multiplication probe to show if there was any growth. Data revealed each participant increased their mean DC/M from their mean DC/M in baseline. However, the intervention was effective for only two of the five participants as shown by their non-overlapping data percentages.