Spring 2019

Document Type

Master's Thesis (Open Access)

Degree Name

Master of Arts (M.A.)


Teacher Education


The number of California English Language Learners (ELLs) continues to rise. While the population has increased, assessment scores measuring English speaking proficiencies have not. Culturally Responsive Visual Aids (CRVA) have been used to increase ELLs' achievement on speaking assessments by bridging two bodies of research: culturally responsive pedagogy and visual aid scaffolding. This study used a two-group non-equivalent pre-post quasi-experimental design to compare ELLs' scores on speaking assessments. The control group (n=16) received weekly speaking practice and the treatment group (n=14) received daily, direct instruction on how to increase scores on speaking assessments using CRVA. Independent sample t-tests were completed to examine the difference in scores between the two groups. The results suggest that using CRVA for daily speaking practice increased scores on speaking assessments given to ELLs; however, these scores were not statistically significant. Future research should examine whether CRVA or daily direct instruction for speaking assessment has a larger impact on ELL achievement.