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An analysis of sources identifying the Ohlone/Costanoan tribal groups that inhabited [federal] parklands in San Francisco and San Mateo Counties prior to Spanish colonization, and the documentation of cultural ties among the earlier native people and members of the present-day community of Ohlone/Costanoans.


This 2009 report studies the Ohlone/Costanoan people who are the descendants of speakers of six related Costanoan languages that were spoken in west central California, from San Francisco Bay to Monterey Bay, when Spanish missionaries and settlers arrived in the 1770s. The San Francisco Peninsula lands of the Golden Gate Recreation Area is in one of the six language territories, San Francisco Bay Costanoan. In this study, the prehistoric and contact-period culture of the San Francisco Bay Costanoans is described and their culture is compared to the cultures of surrounding language groups (other Costanoan language groups and non-Costanoan language groups of adjacent west-Central California areas). The Mission Period history and modern history of the San Francisco Bay Costanoan descendants is traced, as well as that of the descendants of the other Costanoan language speakers. The report addresses the degree of historic cultural resemblance among today’s separate descendant groups, people referred to as Ohlone/Costanoans, Ohlones, or Costanoans.


National Park Service; Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco, California


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Arts and Humanities | Education | Social and Behavioral Sciences

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2009 - Ohlone/Costanoan Indians of the San Francisco Peninsula and their Neighbors, Yesterday and Today by Randall Milliken, Laurence H. Shoup, and Beverly R. Ortiz