Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Background: Resistance exercise training (RET) is a common and well-established method to induce hypertrophy and improvement in strength. Interestingly, fish oil supplementation (FOS) may aug-ment RET-induced adaptations. However, few studies have been conducted on young, healthy adults.
Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled design was used to determine the effect of FOS, a concentrated source of eicosapen-taenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared to placebo (PL) on RET-induced adaptations following a 10-week RET program (3 days·week−1). Body composition was measured by dual- energy x-ray absorptiometry (LBM, fat mass [FM], percent body fat [%BF]) and strength was measured by 1-repetition maximum bar-bell back squat (1RMSQT) and bench press (1RMBP) at PRE (week 0) and POST (10 weeks). Supplement compliance was assessed via self-report and bottle collection every two weeks and via fatty acid dried blood spot collection at PRE and POST. An a priori α- level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance and Cohen’s d was used to quantify effect sizes (ES).
Results: Twenty-one of 28 male and female participants (FOS, n = 10 [4 withdrawals]; PL, n = 11 [3 withdrawals]) completed the 10- week progressive RET program and PRE/POST measurements. After 10-weeks, blood EPA+DHA substantially increased in the FOS group (+109.7%, p< .001) and did not change in the PL group (+1.3%, p = .938). Similar between-group changes in LBM (FOS: +3.4%, PL: +2.4%, p = .457), FM (FOS: −5.2%, PL: 0.0%, p = .092), and %BF (FOS: −5.9%, PL: −2.5%, p = .136) were observed, although, the between- group ES was considered large for FM (d = 0.84). Absolute and relative (kg·kg [body mass]−1) 1RMBP was significantly higher in the FOS group compared to PL (FOS: +17.7% vs. PL: +9.7%, p = .047; FOS: +17.6% vs. PL: +7.3%, p = .011; respectively), whereas absolute 1RMSQT was similar between conditions (FOS: +28.8% vs. PL: +20.5%, p = .191). Relative 1RMSQT was higher in the FOS group (FOS: +29.3% vs. PL: +17.9%, p = .045).
Conclusions: When combined with RET, FOS improves absolute and relative 1RM upper-body and relative 1RM lower-body strength to a greater extent than that observed in the PL group of young, recreationally trained adults.
Heileson, Jeffery L.; Machek, Steven B.; Harris, Dillon R.; Tomek, Sara; de Souza, Leticia C.; Kieffer, Adam J.; Barringer, Nicholas D.; Gallucci, Andrew; Forsse, Jeffrey S.; and Funderburk, LesLee K., "The Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Resistance Training-induced Adaptations" (2023). Kinesiology Faculty Publications and Presentations. 13.
Published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Available via doi: 10.1080/15502783.2023.2174704.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.