Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



Creatine monohydrate supplementation in females is largely under-represented in the literature, and their potentially differential hemodynamic responses are unknown. Methods: Twenty-eight resistance-trained women (25.5 ± 6.1 years, 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, 163 ± 5 cm) were randomly assigned to the supplement creatine monohydrate (CRE; 5 g creatine monohydrate + 5 g dextrose) or placebo (PLA; 10 g dextrose) four times per day for 7 days in a double-blind fashion. Each subject subsequently completed resistance training sessions (3 × week) for four weeks with four sets to muscular failure of both half-squat and leg press exercises. The change in body mass (BM), exercise repetition number (REP), rated perceived exertion (RPE), and cardiovascular variables were assessed (sessions 1, 6, and 12). Statistical analyses were performed at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results: Analyses revealed a significant CRE-specific BM increase (p = 0.013), as well as significantly greater half-squat (p = 0.006) and leg press (p = 0.017) REP per set versus PLA. Additionally, CRE demonstrated significantly lower relative RPE values at session 12 compared with previous sessions. Any significant main or interaction effects were observed for the studied cardiovascular variable. Conclusions: The present data substantiate the creatine’s efficacy to improve muscular performance in females while demonstrating the safety of combined creatine monohydrate supplementation and resistance training on cardiovascular parameters.


Published in Muscles by MDPI. Available via doi: 10.3390/muscles1030013.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).