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International Journal of Statistics and Probability


In medical, health, and sports sciences, researchers desire a device with high reliability and validity. This article focuses on reliability and validity studies with n subjects and m ≥ 2 repeated measurements per subject. High statistical power can be achieved by increasing n or m, and increasing m is often easier than increasing n in practice unless m is too high to result in systematic bias. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a useful statistical method which can conclude a null hypothesis H0 or an alternative hypothesis H1 with 50% of the required sample size of a non-sequential test on average. The traditional SPRT requires the likelihood function for each observed random variable, and it can be a practical burden for evaluating the likelihood ratio after each observation of a subject. Instead, m observed random variables per subject can be transformed into a test statistic which has a known sampling distribution under H0 and under H1. This allows us to formulate a SPRT based on a sequence of test statistics. In this article, three types of study are considered: reliability of a device, reliability of a device relative to a criterion device, and validity of a device relative to a criterion device. Using SPRT for testing the reliability of a device, for small m, results in an average sample size of about 50% of the fixed sample size for a non-sequential test. For comparing a device to criterion, the average sample size approaches to 60% approximately as m increases. The SPRT tolerates violation of normality assumption for validity study, but it does not for reliability study.


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Published in International Journal of Statistics and Probability by the Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE). Available via doi: 10.5539/ijsp.v8n1p120.